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                      Copper and tin foil plating process

                      1 Introduction

                          Aluminum foil with a light, closed, and coating of good range of benefits, has been widely used in electronics, packaging, construction and other fields, especially in the emerging bio-engineering, energy, and environmental protection related to technology innovation, the use of aluminum foil and urgent development applications and related technology to expand more and more broad. Aluminum is a very lively amphoteric metal, is highly oxophilic, it is easy to form on its surface oxide film, has caused great difficulties to the aluminum plating. In aluminum foil in order to obtain good plating, electroplating is a key pre-treatment process. In electronic applications, in order to increase the conductivity of aluminum and welding, the surface needs to metals such as copper and tin plating, many studies are mostly at home and abroad using chemical methods, prepreg and plating combination treatment process more complex . The author, after a large number of experiments, the use of surface plasma cleaning and sputtering pretreatment plus intermediate layer plating process, the aluminum surface to obtain a crystal detail, bright, good weldability, combined with strong copper, tin plating. In a certain thickness of aluminum foil surface of the copper plating can be used instead of copper foil is widely used in the field of electromagnetic shielding, printed circuit boards and lithium-ion battery collector, etc., thus saving a lot of copper; tin plating layer can be used alone or copper plus tin plating used in some new electronics.


                          2 Process Description


                          2.1 Materials


                          With a thickness of 0.033mm, hard light foil to LG3 of high purity aluminum rolling. Cut from the roll out of aluminum foil on a 10cm × 10cm specimen spare.


                          2.2 Process

                          Bias sputtering plasma cleaning ─ middle layer (nickel-copper alloy) ─ plated copper / or tin plating.


                          2.3 Process Description


                          2.3.1 Surface Cleaning

                          Hard light foil without softening, surface residual oil must be degreased. Skimmed by plasma cleaning, it is dry process, the treated surface without residue, the need for environmental protection. The treatment does not affect the intrinsic properties of the matrix, and short duration, high efficiency, easy to control the process. Process parameters: discharge vacuum 33Pa, loaded gas is Ar, O2, etc., handling power 150W, time 1 ~ 3min.


                          2.3.2 Operating conditions for the middle layer by magnetron sputtering as: basic vacuum <5.5 × 10-3Pa, sputtering pressure 0.12 ~ 0.20Pa, target-substrate distance 60 ~ 100mm, sputtering power of 100W, the target diameter of 60mm, DC negative bias 60V.


                        2.3.3 Copper Plating

                          Bath composition and operating conditions as follows: copper sulfate 180 ~ 220g / L, sulfuric acid 40 ~ 90g / L, chloride 40 ~ 90mg / L, open cylinder agent 4 ~ 8mL / L, brightener A0.3 ~ 0.8mL / L, brightener B0.2 ~ 0.5mL / L, temperature 20 ~ 40 ° C, cathode current density of 1 ~ 6A/dm2, air mixing, phosphor copper anode (phosphorus content of 0.03% ~ 0.06%). Open cylinder agent and brightener for the German imported products, the proceeds of the coating process is not easy to produce pinhole, high gloss, low internal stress, ductility, uniform thickness; deposition speed, bath stability, high tolerance for impurities.


                          2.3.4 Acid tin [1]

                          Bath formulation and process conditions are: Stannous methanesulfonate (tin content 300g / L) 50mL / L (equivalent to Sn2 +12 ~ 18g / L), open the cylinder agents 500mL / L, water 450mL / L, pH2 .3 to 3.5, Baume 13 ~ 17 ° Bé, temperature 20 ~ 30 ° C, cathode current density of 0.1 ~ 1.0A/dm2, cathode and anode area ratio of 1:1, forced circulation bath mixing. Open cylinder containing complexing agent agent, conductive salts, dispersants, and Sn2 + stabilizer, its role is to: conductive, with a bit of tin ions, increasing anodic polarization, the coating crystal detail; stable Sn2 +, preventing its oxidation and subsequent hydrolysis: a stable solution of the density.


                          3 Coating


                          3.1 binding


                          3.1.1 bending

                          The specimen bending and breaking, the fracture coating without peeling, shedding.


                          3.1.2 Thermal shock test

                          The specimen shall be placed in the furnace heated to 150 ° C, heat 1h, and then into the water quench, plating without blistering and shedding.


                          3.2 Solderability

                          In accordance with GB/T16475-1997 "brazing metal coating product of standard test methods," using lead-free solder for copper plus tin plating for solderability test, solder layer is smooth, shiny, uniform, and no coating peeling or shedding .


                          4 pre-treatment effects on coating adhesion


                          4.1 The impact of plasma cleaning process

                          It was found that the cleaning process will make high-energy ion sputtering the surface of the substrate, leading to the impurities present in the vacuum chamber partially decomposed, the resulting decomposition products but to make the substrate surface contamination, and ultimately lead to coating blistering and shedding. Therefore, the voltage applied 500 ~ 1000V caused by low-energy glow discharge cleaning process better.


                          4.2 magnetron sputtering effects of negative bias

                          Negative bias applied to the substrate by attracting cations in the plasma bombard the surface of the substrate, so that the sputtering target molecules have enough energy crystals; while not attached to a solid material stripped from the target molecule; guarantee sputtered metal layer adhesion. Experiments show that the negative bias at 60V, the proceeds of coating uniformity, density, good adhesion.


                          4.3 The impact of the middle layer material

                          As an intermediate layer of nickel-copper alloy 400 is an excellent overall performance corrosion resistant alloys, generally does not produce stress corrosion cracking in the mass fraction of less than 85% of sulfuric acid are corrosion resistant to ensure that copper is not easy breakdown, resulting in dense, high adhesion coating.


                         5 plating conditions on the coating performance


                          5.1 when the power supply waveform copper

                          Compared with DC plating layer, the surface layer of copper pulses more flat, smooth, better crystallinity, and the combination of substrate better corrosion resistance is also higher.


                          5.2 tin plating effect of temperature on the coating quality

                          Experiments show that the temperature can be increased to improve the bath to allow the use of current density and the ability to improve the dispersion of the bath, but if the temperature is too high, the low current density plating areas prone to leakage. Lower bath temperature, can improve the bath stability and coverage, but if the temperature is too low, the dispersion capacity of the bath and current density will reduce operational and high current density area is easy to burn, dark. In the premise of ensuring the quality of the coating, temperature is controlled at 20 ~ 30 ° C.


                          6 Application

                          This process has been applied to actual production, high vacuum magnetron sputtering winding coating equipment increases the volume of the volume scale plating equipment has achieved continuous production, can produce a thickness of 0.006 ~ 0.1mm of aluminum foil, copper foil cost only 1 / 4, a simple production process control, product qualification rate. The products of this process has been widely used in electromagnetic shielding fields, making copper foil tape. The product has passed the U.S. ASTMD-1000 standard test, can shield electromagnetic signals, in addition to mobile phones, notebook computers and other digital products, such as electric toys, circuit board, LED assembly, manufacturing, and other areas of computer power adapter also has a broad application space.



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